Vitamin M, Modafinil



FDA approved in 1998 Modafinil is a medication used to promote wakefulness. It has been used for sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, shift work disorder, and narcolepsy to help with the excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition to helping maintain wakefulness and alertness, it also helps sustain performance with sleep deprivation. Even in healthy adults, there are benefits to alertness and performance without sleep deprivation. It has been used in a wide spectrum of markets.

How does it work?

Modafinil also referred to by the name Provigil, is a psychostimulant but of a specific class called a eugeroic. As such it doesn’t have similar side effects, it doesn’t interfere with sleep recovery and there are no issues with addiction and tolerance. It is considered a central nervous system stimulant (CNS) but not associated with the typical side effects such as tachycardia or hypertension. It can be found under the names Modvigil and Modalert which are generics sold by Duckdose; being generic they vary slightly in strengths and fillers from the original variation of the medication.

It has been seen to affect an increase in availability of dopamine and norepinephrine as well as having a histamine effect. It also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system which promotes energy. However, the boost in dopamine can improve mood, wakefulness, cognition and the pleasure/reward system. A complete understanding of the way it functions on the brain has not been fully researched but it has been shown affect the locus coerulens, nucleua accumbens and tuberomamillary nuclei in the posterior hypothalamus. These specific areas of the brain are where we see the increase in the above mentioned neurotransmitters resulting in the wakefulness effect. (See here or additional research)

What research is there?

There is a broad spectrum of research on modafinil for improvements in wakefulness, fatigue, alertness and cognitive performance. The research has involved healthy individuals, people with sleep disorders, chronically ill individuals with excessive fatigue and people with sleep deprivation.

The first area of interest is some of the research looking into modafinil’s effects on healthy individuals. A study in 2004 found on healthy individuals modafinil improved motivation, fatigue, reaction time and vigilance and illustrated the effects were not due to simply perceived overconfidence in abilities. A study in 2003 looked at the cognitive performance effects on healthy individuals when on 100-200mgs of modafinil. It found the medication significantly improved performance on tests for digit span, stop signal reaction time, spatial planning and visual pattern recognition memory. With the subjects stating they felt more energetic, attentive and alert on the medication. It also noted it improves impulse-responding, and similar conclusions on this fact have led to it being researched for ADHD. More research compared modafinil to d-amphetamine. Both medications reduced sleepiness. Modafinil enhanced cognitive performance on two additional tests (digit-symbol substation task and repeated acquisition response sequence task) that had the study concluding modafinil has alertness effects and increases performance in non-sleep deprived individuals compared to d-amphetamine. A review of the cognitive effects of modafinil in 2007 found extensive evidence it improves working and episodic memory, processes dependent on prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Without sleep deprivation then, we can see some benefits to buying modafinil in healthy individuals. Certainly, we can see it helps with overall alertness, can be anti-fatigue, improvements to reaction times and some evidence it helps with cognitive performance in some areas.

There is a substantial amount of evidence modafinil helps with sustaining wakefulness long term and in maintaining cognitive function while doing so. This is a benefit to people having to work shift-work, extended hours and who have conditions causing excessive fatigue. One study 2012 we can look at a military study of sleep deprivation and cognitive performance. The analyzed helicopter pilots after 2 X’s 40 hours periods of continual operation. They received three doses of 100mg of modafinil every four hours while each completed 15 flights. The modafinil was well-tolerated and showed it sustained alertness, sense of well-being, continued cognitive function, judgment, risk perception and situational awareness. The performance was not affected by their continued wakefulness with the use of the medications assistance. The study concluded it is a good choice for combating mood and cognitive effects of sleep loss during their long operations. A second study also done in 2012 was performed on doctors with one night of sleep deprivation on 200mgs of modafinil. It showed the medication helped with their working memory, planning, they were less impulsive with decision making and were flexible in their attention. It suggested that even with sleep deprivation and pressure higher cognitive performance was preserved enabling doctors to concentrate for their extended shifts. In fact, a study back in 2004 reviewed long-term 85 hours of sleep deprivation and found it promoted alertness and sustained performance which simply demonstrates the longer term sustained performance in sleep deprivation. We can see why people who work extended shifts or shift work would buy modafinil. The important takeaway is modafinil is well documented overall in wakefulness promotion, alertness and in sustaining performance when it comes to sleep deprivation but it is also interesting to note it tends to help with an impulsiveness that tends to increase with lack of sleep.

Best Vitamins for Energy

To compliment modafinil if you have fatigue, sleep deprivation or simply lack energy there are two vitamins you may consider boosting in your diet.

  • B complex- B vitamins are important for blood cell production and metabolism. They are also considered the ‘stress vitamins’. Either way, they support the energy metabolism process. Deficiency in them includes, unsurprisingly, fatigue, memory issues, weakness, and anemia.
  • Iron- Without a sufficient amount fewer blood cells can even get made, which, again can cause anemia and without the red blood cells your body isn’t going to get enough oxygen. This can result in fatigue, dizziness, headaches and paleness. It is a surprisingly common deficiency.

Modafinil is used in a variety of conditions. It is used in sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy and sleep apnea. It is used for excessive fatigue in conditions like Parkinson’s Disease, Fibromyalgia, and MS. It is also used in occupations such as prolonged shifts in the military, extended doctor rounds and other occupations that require concentration for long shift work and can cause some sleep deprivation as a result. It works well in these situations due to the fact it promotes sustain wakefulness while at the same time sustaining the same cognitive function one would have well rested. It helps with impulse control and decision-making while sleep deprived, both of which usually do not perform well. In healthy individuals, it is anti-fatigue, promotes alertness, makes us more energetic, improves reaction time and does show improvements to overall cognitive function even when we are not sleep deprived.


Have a hard time staying focused? Struggling with sore muscles, fatigue, and brittle hair? Are your hands and feet cold all the time? These signs may indicate poor circulation. Even though this isn’t a condition itself, its symptoms shouldn’t be overlooked. If left untreated, it may lead to painful muscle cramps, weakened immune system, fatigue, and poor work performance.


A balanced diet and regular exercise can help improve circulation and restore your energy. Unfortunately, many foods are highly processed or lose their nutrients during cooking, which may cause nutrient deficiencies and affect circulation. This is where supplements come in handy. Add these vitamins to your diet to improve circulation naturally:


This B vitamin helps increase blood and oxygen flow, supports cardiovascular health, and lowers bad cholesterol levels. In the long run, it decreases the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. The best dietary sources of niacin include peanuts, sunflower seeds, beets, fish, fortified grains, and meat.


A 2004 study has found that people with low folate levels were more likely to develop peripheral vascular disease and other circulatory problems. Also known as folic acid, this vitamin supports red blood cell production and improves circulation. Folate supplementation may boost endothelial function and prevent cardiovascular disease.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C deficiency has been linked to a higher risk of atherosclerosis. This nutrient prevents plaque buildup on the arteries and strengthens the immune system. When used as part of a balanced diet, it may improve cardiac health and protect against diabetes-induced vascular disease. To get more vitamin C in your diet, take supplements and eat citrus fruit, leafy greens, kiwi, berries, mango, and cruciferous veggies.

Vitamin K

This nutrient plays a key role in blood clotting. Even the slightest deficiency may cause excessive bleeding, increased menstrual flow, and slow wound healing. Spinach, kale, broccoli, and other leafy greens are rich in vitamin K, offering a hefty dose of nutrients. If you take supplements, choose one that provides at least 150 mcg of vitamin K per serving.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E boasts natural antioxidant properties, increasing blood flow throughout the body and fighting oxidative stress. It also acts as a blood thinner and anti-inflammatory agent. Supplementing your diet with vitamin E will lead to improved circulation and lower heart disease risk.

The Most important Supplement (multivitamins)


In the world today millions of people suffer from illness because there are no sufficient vitamins in the body to boost their immune system, they get infected easily with minute bacterial. From the word multi-vitamins, multi simply means multiples; while Vitamins is a specific group of organic compounds essential in small quantities for healthy human growth.  Multivitamins are combination of different vitamins or minerals added to diet to make a complete nutrients in the body.

A multivitamin supplement comes in form of piles, chewable tablets, powder, and liquids. Multivitamins contains three (3) components; water soluble vitamins, fat soluble vitamins, and minerals water soluble vitamins. It is absolutely necessary to take multivitamins after taking food to add up the nutrients of food. The fat soluble of multivitamins examples is vitamin A, D, E and K, these minerals includes calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, selenium and zinc. Vitamin are vulnerable to heat, light and chemical agents.

There are lots of nutrients from food but we don’t eat enough of fruits, vegetables and majority of the fruits and vegetables contains the multivitamins supplements. Science has proven that lower intakes of multivitamins can lower risk for heart disease, cancer, and other health related diseases.

Importance of Multivitamin in the body system:

Healthy Aging:

As we increase in age our body system as pass through a lot of exercise and it needs multivitamins to build up the absorbed nutrient.

Boost Immunity:

There are lots of supplements that can boost up the immune system, for example vitamin C is for strong antioxidant, it’s strengthening the immune system also Vitamins D and E can reduce allergy symptoms.

Healthy Eye:

Vitamins A, C, E protects eyes from harmful light waves, multivitamins contains combinations of lutein, and zeaxanthin can reduce the macular degeneration.

Strong bone and healthy bones:

Multivitamin containing calcium, magnesium, boron and vitamin D nutrients are mainly for the strong bones and healthy bones. It is encouraged that aging people should use the multivitamin to help achieve and maintain bone density.

Managing stress:

If you are a sport man it helps in boosting mood, the scientist has shown that a daily multivitamin one containing therapeutic dosages of B-complex vitamins can contribute to reducing stress and anxiety.

Muscle strength:

When taking a right multivitamin it improves the nutrient of the muscles, many of the problems with muscle ageing are allied with free radical damage, and an antioxidant-rich daily multivitamin can help keep free radicals in check. Vitamin D has also been shown to improve muscle strength in older people.

Sexual Drive:

Zinc is one of the best multivitamin for men, it helps in regulating and it’s improve the male reproduction for healthy sperm and good functioning of the male reproductive organ, including the prostrate.

Whether you are an athlete, body builder, a footballer, young or old, male or female, it is compulsory for one to start using multivitamins because it replenish the body.





Top Benefits of Vitamin Supplements

Do you want to boost your intake of vitamins? It’s as easy as Vitamin A, B, and C through vitamin supplements. These products provide your body with the 13 essential vitamins you need for good health. Here are some of the most important vitamins that you can get in supplements:

1. Vitamin A

This vitamin is important for treating and preventing eye conditions such as cataracts, and skin disorders/infections. It is also useful for boosting hair health.


2. Vitamin B complex

This is a group of vitamins that includes several types including Vitamin B1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12. These different B vitamins are important for different functions of the human body and preventing certain illnesses and diseases.

Vitamin B supplements can provide various benefits. They include skin and heart health, mood lifting, lower anxiety, and immune boosting. It’s important to keep in mind that different B vitamins and different functions, so it’s better to use a Vitamin B complex supplement to provide different health benefits.

3. Vitamin C

This is one of the most important vitamins. It can help to treat and prevent various health issues including those related to eyes, infections, high blood pressure, stress, the common cold, diabetes, heart disease, and others.

Vitamin C provides many benefits. It can help to boost people’s immune system. This also has been linked to boosting brain and heart disease and cognitive issues. Vitamin C is also one of the most powerful antioxidants in the human body. Thus, it not only helps to treat health conditions but also prevents them.

4. Vitamin D

This vitamin is very helpful in lowering blood pressure, repairing bones, helping eye conditions, improving blood circulation and diseases, lowering cancer risk, and increasing brain function. Some foods that are high in Vitamin D include milk, yogurt, and cheese.


5. Vitamin K

This vitamin is important for preventing internal bleeding, improving nerve signaling, reducing menstrual symptoms, and helping kidney stones.

Various food supplements including vitamin supplements can provide several health benefits. They’ve available for a wide variety of essential vitamins that the human body needs. They’re also very safe and include fewer side-effects than prescription medications.

It’s important to note that it’s still important to live a healthy lifestyle. That includes eating healthy foods including fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, “good” fats, and lean meats. It’s also important to exercise regularly, which should include cardio and weight-resistance exercises.

There are various types of vitamin supplements you can choose from. A good one is a multivitamin. This type of product includes a few various vitamins. That helps to make sure you’re getting some vitamins that are normally difficult to get in foods. It also reduces the risk of the supplements because there isn’t a large amount of any particular vitamin in the supplement.

There are also vitamin supplements that include one or two vitamins. They include Vitamin A & D, C, E, and so on. If you have a deficiency of a particular vitamin due to factors such as a health condition or disease, then you should certainly consider this option

It’s important to consult your doctor before you start taking vitamin supplements. The reason is that they might not be risk-free in certain situations. Your physician will be able to clear up any risks that might exist due to factors such as health conditions/diseases you have and prescription meds you’re taking. This will help to make sure the supplements aren’t just effective but also safe.

These supplements are available in both physical and online stores, but it’s important to choose a good source to maximize their safety.

Key Factors When Choosing Vitamin Supplements

Are you in the market for vitamin supplements? These can be quite effective in providing your body with the vitamins it needs. Experts say that humans require 13 essential vitamins for good health. Supplements are one of the best sources of vitamins, but there are many to choose from. Here are some of the most important issues to



As with other types of health products, supplements are made by various companies. There are certain brands you should consider due to the high quality they provide.

On the other hand, there are other brands that produce mid-level or even low-quality supplements. These are products that you should avoid for various reasons. In particular, the quality of the products is lower, so they’ll provide lower quality vitamins.

Not only that but it’s possible the supplements could be a health risk due to the quality of ingredients, for example. That’s certainly a situation you’ll want to


This is a case of getting what you pay for. If you want high-quality vitamin supplements, you should be re ready to pay higher price tags. Is it worthwhile? It’s a good investment when you consider that you need the vitamins and it’s difficult to put a monetary value on your health.

This can be a difficult issue to gauge because it’s sometimes difficult to learn about the processes a particular uses to manufacture supplements. It’s better to start off with a quality company to help make sure you’re getting a solid


This is yet another important issue when purchasing vitamin supplements. There are many factors. They include the brand, vitamin, dosage, etc. In fact, there are many different factors that can affect the price tag of the vitamin supplements you buy.

As a word of caution, make sure that you don’t just go by the price of the supplements. While a higher price tag usually results in a better quality supplement, it’s not always the case. It’s better also to weigh other factors such as the supplement’s manufacturer. That, in turn, will help you to decide whether or not the price for a particular product is worth


This is another important issue to consider when shopping for vitamin supplements. Different products include a different amount of the vitamin. This could be an important issue if you’re dealing with a serious vitamin deficiency, for example.

Make sure to figure out how much of a particular vitamin you should be taking. A physician can help to guide you about this issue. You’ll want to avoid getting too much of a vitamin as it can cause health problems just as a vitamin deficiency can cause.

These are just some of the many issues to consider when shopping for a vitamin supplement. By knowing what to look for you’ll be in better shape to find the best supplements for your needs. It will help to guide you in making the best decisions for your health, which is the ultimate goal.


Main Drawbacks of Vitamin Supplements

Are you in the market for vitamin supplements? They’re a great source of vitamins and an excellent alternative to natural foods. On the other hand, keep in mind that they’re not 100% natural since they’re processed. This highlights the need to consider various possible drawbacks including the following ones:



It’s important to always follow the recommended dosage, that’s because they’re based on the quantity that human bodies can usually handle. If you overdose on the vitamins you could experience some negative effects. That’s definitely a situation you’ll want to

This situation might seem ironic since vitamins are good for health. However, keep in mind that too much of a good thing is possible in life, and that includes vitamins that the human body needs. That’s why you should consider this issue and make sure not to intake too much of a particular vitamin. This will help to keep the vitamins safe and healthy.



As when buying other types of health products, there’s always a chance that the quality of the products could be sub-standard. That’s why you should definitely consider the quality of a particular vitamin supplement before you purchase

There are various ways to check the quality. They start with the manufacturer, such as if the company has a good reputation in the supplement industry, and so on. You could also look for some reviews to determine the general consensus among past customers and industry experts about the quality of the product.



There are various factors that could negatively influence the effect of a particular supplement. They include the small amount of various vitamins in multi-vitamins. A potential problem with these products is that the amount of a particular vitamin you need more of is

That’s because such vitamins add a wide variety of different vitamins in the product. That results in a small amount of each vitamin. It’s OK if you’re just supplementing a healthy diet and regular exercise. On the other hand, if you have a major vitamin deficiency you’ll want to maximize the dosage of a supplement. A better option would be supplement that includes 1-2 vitamins instead of several.



As when buying other health products, you might find vitamin supplements that have sky-high prices. There’s nothing wrong with paying a littlemore money for quality. However, you should always try to avoid paying prices that are much higher than they should

Make sure to do some research about the industry standards of a particular vitamin in terms of the quality and dosage. That will help you to determine whether you’re spending too much for a product or approximately the right price. The key is to do some research so you know whether or not a particular price is

These are some of the possible drawbacks you could deal with when searching for a vitamin supplement. The good news is it’s possible to turn the possible drawbacks into benefits. It will help you to make the best decision for your needs.

Mistakes to Avoid When Buying Vitamin Supplements

Are you in the market for vitamin supplements? If so then there are some steps you should take to have the best experience. There are also mistakes you should try to avoid as they could cause a world of trouble during your search. Here are some of them:


Not shopping around

There’s an old saying that “You can always find a better price.” That goes for just about any type of item including vitamin supplements. Make sure to shop around so you can find the best price for the vitamins you

Keep in mind that some supplements will always cost more depending on factors such as the type, dosage, brand, etc. Still, if you do comparison shopping, you’ll be able to find a reasonable price for the supplements you’re looking

That’s a plus since it will free up money that you could spend on other things. That could include more vitamins! You can also save money through means such as wholesale, discounted, and bulk vitamins supplements. It’s worth considering if you want to save money in the long-term.

Not researching a brand

NEW YORK - NOVEMBER 11: Bottles of Vitamin E are seen in a CVS pharmacy November 11, 2004 in New York City. According to a new study dietary supplements of vitamin E can be dangerous in high doses. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)

Make sure to do some research about a particular brand before you buy products such as vitamin supplements from it. There’s a chance that it could turn out to be a good company. On the other hand, it could also turn out to be a disaster if you don’t know enough about the

There are tons of vitamin supplement companies. They can vary a lot, so it’s advisable to research a particular company before placing an order. Is their pricing reasonable? Have there been any red flags on the net? Do they provide good prices and value? These are all important issues to consider when shopping for vitamin

Even if you find a negative review or two for a company, make sure to get a consensus. There’s a chance that a few customers had problems with a company, but it was an uncommon situation. If most reviews for a brand and its products are positive, then it’s likely you’ll also have a good


Not living a healthy lifestyle

Keep in mind that by definition a vitamin supplement is supposed to add to your current healthy diet. It’s not supposed to replace it. There are various steps you can take to stay healthy, but some of the main ones are eating right, exercising regularly, and getting enough

Never expect a miracle from vitamin supplements. They should be used to fill small nutritional gaps, not bridge a bad diet and good health. This isn’t to say that you have to eat healthy 100% of the time or exercise two hours daily. On the other hand, if you’re not living a healthy lifestyle you’re not helping yourself by purchasing vitamin

These are some of the key mistakes to avoid when shopping for vitamin supplements. By keeping them in mind, you can enjoy the best results. Make sure to know not only what to do but also what not to do.

Benefits of Vitamin Supplements

Should you consider vitamin supplements? Food is the best source of vitamins and minerals, but supplements are the best alternative. If you’re looking for a way to complement your other sources of vitamins you should consider supplements. Here are some of the reasons:



It can be difficult to gauge how much of particular vitamins you’re getting from food unless you have a scale and chart with you. That’s unlikely so it can sometimes be quite difficult to keep track of your vitamin consumption throughout the

Vitamin supplements, on the other hand, are easier to track. That’s because you’ll know the amount of a particular vitamin you’re getting each time you take

This is especially important if you have a medical condition that results in a vitamin deficiency, for example. In that case you’ll need to know exactly how much of a vitamin you’re consuming. A vitamin supplement can help to provide that

This isn’t to say that you should also get vitamins from food. However, you’ll want to know how much you’re getting of particular vitamins and vitamin supplement can provide that information automatically.



One of the main benefits of supplements is their convenience. You can bring them with you to work, school, and anywhere else you go outside of home. This is much more convenient than other options such as bringing healthy natural foods with you

The latter can cause a wide array of problems. For example, you might be unable to refrigerate the food depending on where you are. There’s also the fact that there are certain places where a Tupperware of food, for example, isn’t

On the other hand, it’s quite easy to bring a bottle of vitamin supplements with you wherever you go. It’s just a matter of twisting off the cap then consuming one of the tablets or capsules. The process is quite fast and easy.



The cost of vitamin supplements isn’t cheap per se. However, there are various factors that can affect the price. If you buy in bulk and from a wholesaler, for example, you can save a ton of


Another factor to consider is that it’s a small investment considering the health benefits you can enjoy. Consider the high cost of purchasing prescription meds. Compared to those prices the costs of vitamin supplements are fairly

There’s also the issue that the supplements can have a major effect on your life. In a sense you can’t put a price tag on your health. That’s why making investment such as through food supplements is a good choice. It will help to ensure that you’re as healthy as possible, which is important. Consider the high costs of medical bills if you were to be hospitalized due to a major vitamin

These are some of the key benefits of vitamin supplements that you should consider. They can provide major advantages not only to your health, but also to your wallet, which make them an option worth considering.

spoon with dietary supplements on fruits background

Key Facts about Vitamins and Vitamin Supplements

Are you getting enough of the 13 essential vitamins for humans? The best source of these
vitamins is food, but sometimes supplements are needed to boost health and provide the various benefits of the different vitamins. Vitamins can provide a wide variety of health benefits including


However, today many vitamin supplement manufacturers make all sorts of claims. They include the promise that vitamins can help to boost performance, reduce stress. Shed pounds and even get rid of

It’s true that certain vitamins can improve the health of certain components of the human body. That includes eyes, skin, heart, blood, bones, and others. That said, it’s important to avoid having the notion that somehow vitamin supplements can function as some wonder

Instead, experts say that it’s important that vitamin supplements be used to fill small nutrient gaps. Keep in mind that by definition the name of the products is “supplements.” They should be added to healthy diets instead of being used to replace

It’s instead important to create a healthy meal plan. Your daily diet should include fruit, veggies, grains,  dairy, lean meats, etc. Eating these types of foods and eating enough of them is the key to eating healthy

In fact, experts stress that healthy foods should be the staple of a healthy diet. Natural foods are important and organic foods are even better. These should be the top source of your vitamins. In fact, if you’re eating healthy food you’ll be getting most of the vitamins you need and the right amount


However, there are some issues that can cause some vitamin deficiencies in your body. For example, if you do a lot of exercising you could have lower levels of certain vitamins because you lose them when you do workouts. However, you can easily replenish these vitamins by eating healthy

Another issue is that some people have health conditions that cause deficiencies of certain vitamins in their bodies. No matter how healthy your diet is it could remain a problem and create the need to use vitamin supplements. This would be a better option than multi-vitamins because you would get a larger amount of the vitamin than the small amounts in

Another factor of health issues that could require vitamins supplements is the natural aging process. For example, older women tend to have lower levels of calcium so that they could benefit from higher intakes of milk, green leafy veggies, and calcium


Finally, a bad diet could be causing vitamin deficiencies. If you eat a lot of highly processed foods, then you’re likely not getting enough the 13 vitamins you should be consuming through food. In that case, vitamin supplements can boost your body’s levels of different

These are some of the many causes of vitamin deficiencies. The best solution is healthy food, and the best alternative to that is vitamin supplements. Make sure you’re not only getting the right vitamins, but also the right amounts.